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The bacterial flora in the large intestine ensures the digestion of carbohydrates that are not broken down in the small intestine. The small intestine's job of breaking down carbohydrates cannot always be fulfilled, especially with high-fiber foods. In the large intestine, anaerobic bacteria break down the remaining carbohydrates, resulting in gas formation. A feeling of fullness and flatulence are noticeable. Unexpected lactose from dairy products can also get into the large intestine, for example if it is transported through the intestine too quickly or if there is a lack of the enzyme lactase. The colon bacteria then break down the lactase into lactic acid and carbon dioxide. The digestion of fructose can cause a similar process. The amount of gas produced or released depends on the amount of food that is difficult to digest, but also on the amount of intestinal bacteria. There are two types of colon bacteria. One part produces carbon dioxide and hydrogen , the other part consumes these gases. Their equilibrium also determines how much gas is present. The amount of gas that is carried away by the blood is also crucial.
Scientists have found that when you feel bloated and flatulent, gases stay in the small intestine longer. In addition to normal gas production, there is also the amount of remaining gas. The same process takes place in the large intestine. Part of the excessive gas volume must be released. It is discharged from the body in the form of flatulence. On average, this is a quantity of 600 ml per day. The emitted gas is 99% odorless. Bloating can also lead to a hard stomach and abdominal pain. The circumference of the abdomen can also increase, so-called offset winds are responsible for this, which accumulate in the transverse intestine, a part of the large intestine. Severe flatulence can even lead to intestinal cramps . In order to largely avoid flatulence, it is usually sufficient to change your diet and eating habits. When you eat slowly, less air is swallowed.