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Myopia is widespread and can usually be corrected quickly and permanently with glasses or contact lenses. Laser surgery is also possible and can now help those affected quite well. In the case of short-sightedness, those affected can no longer see so well at a distance, and close objects are recognized without any further problems. The degree of short-sightedness varies from person to person and is measured in dioptres (dpt). The degree of myopia is given in minus, for example -1.5 dpt. In the case of farsightedness, on the other hand, the strength is displayed with a plus.
In general, it can be said that the cause of myopia lies in the structure of the eye. The sharp image from the retina cannot arise for two different reasons. One possibility is that the eyeball is too long, also called axis myopia. In the other possibility, the cornea of the eye is curved too much, which is called refractive myopia. Regardless of the underlying cause, the effect is the same: in people with normal vision, the focal point, where a sharp image is created, is in the retina. In myopic people, this focal point is in front of it and so things that are further away cannot be seen clearly. The brain then perceives this blurred image. For many of those affected, myopia begins between the ages of 10 and 12 and then continues to increase until the age of 25. However, it is also possible for the eyes to continue to deteriorate until the age of 30. This nearsightedness is called simple myopia. Then there is malignant myopia, in which the eyeball stretches independently of various external influences. The retina and choroid are affected as a result of this stretching. This disease can even lead to a dangerous detachment of the retina, and the visual impairment is then also very pronounced. However, both forms of myopia can be treated, it is only important to see a doctor at the first symptoms and have your eyesight checked.
Nearsightedness can be recognized quite well by various symptoms. Those affected by myopia have difficulty seeing objects that are further away, but have no problems up close. If faces and people are recognized late and the display panels or street signs can no longer be recognized well from a distance, this is usually due to short-sightedness. Projected texts at school or university are often difficult to recognize and light sources or illuminated signs are often difficult to recognize. Headaches are often a result of myopia, especially when long and focused distance vision is required. Many short-sighted drivers therefore have headaches after long journeys. However, short-sightedness is quite easy to recognize and can also be treated well after an eye test.
Myopia can be corrected fairly well, either with glasses or contact lenses. With the glasses, the focal point is then shifted so that it lies directly in the retinal plane, as in the case of people with normal vision. This is done by diverging lenses, which have a negative refractive index. In this way, the focal point can be shifted and short-sighted people can see normally again. However, there is also the possibility that neither glasses nor contact lenses can be worn. Then an operation with a laser can be considered, which is now much safer and can restore normal vision. However, the cornea must be thick enough for this and the visual acuity must not have changed significantly in the past few months. If the cornea is too thin, artificial lenses may be used. The consequences of such an operation could be long-sightedness, and increased glare sensitivity often occurs after the operation. The attending physician must decide whether this operation is possible or not.
Especially in road traffic, short-sightedness must be recognized and corrected, otherwise there is an increased risk for road users. For this reason, glasses or contact lenses are required from a certain strength, so that a safe journey is possible at all. Short-sightedness is very common and means that objects that are further away are blurred or only recognized quite late. A good example would be street signs or train information boards, which can only be deciphered at a late stage. The treatment options for short-sightedness are glasses, contact lenses and operations and they are very successful.